Contact Information
George A. Middendorf, PhD
Professor - Department of Biology
Office Location: EE Just Hall Room 206
Office Telephone: 202-806-7289
Laboratory Location: EE Just Hall Room 210

A.B., Dartmouth College, 1973
M.A., Hunter College (CUNY), 1975
Ph.D., University of Tennessee-Knoxville, 1979

Credentials and Memberships
Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles
American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists
Ecological Society for America
Herpetologists' League

Animal Behavor (BIOL409)
Science and Public Policy (BIOL204)

Research Interests
Environmental Justice

Research Detailed:

Dr. Middendorf's research focuses on reptilian and amphibian biology with emphases on behavior, ecology, evolution, and host-parasite interactions. He has published over 40 articles including papers on dealing with lizard resource partitioning, ecological responses to resource availability, defensive behaviors, and barriers to dispersal, as well as on biodiversity of a lowland amphibian community in Bolivia. He is continuing his long-term studies of Sceloporus lizards in southeastern Arizona and of tropical herpetofaunal communities in Suriname. He has also been involved in examining environmental justice issues in urban areas, in implementing the Environmental Justice Section of the Ecological Society of America, and in developing interdisciplinary and environmental studies programs at Howard University. He is a member of numerous scientific societies, including ASB, AIBS, ASIH, ESA, Herpetologists' League, SSAR, and Sigma Xi.

Selected Publications

  Duke, CS, G Middendorf, J Wyndham. 2011. Science as a Human Right: ESA and the AAAS Science and Human Rights Coalition. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 92:61-3.
  Grant, BW, G Middendorf, MJ Colgan, H Ahmad, and MB Vogel. 2011. Ecology of Urban Amphibians and Reptiles: Urbanophiles, Urbanophobes, and the Urbanoblivious. In Urban Ecology: Patterns, Processes, and Applications. Eds. J Niemelä, JH Breuste, T Elmqvist, G Guntenspergen, P James, NE McIntyre. Oxford U. Press, NY. pp. 167-178.
  Schwartzman, D, G Middendorf, and M Armour-Chelu. 2010. Was climate the prime releaser for encephalization? Climatic Change 95: 439-447.
  Middendorf, G. 2009. Lizard destiny, lizard dreams. In Reaser, J.K. (ed.) Courting the Wild: Love Affairs with Reptiles & Amphibians. Hiraeth Press, San Franscisco, CA. pp. 109-114.
  White, SR, RD Jennings, DE Ruby, and GA Middendorf. Geographic distribution: Sceloporus jarrovii (Yarrow's spiny lizard). Herpetological Review. 41 (1): 108-109.
  Middendorf, G. 2009. Lizard destiny, lizard dreams. In Reaser, J.K. (ed.) Courting the Wild: Love Affairs with Reptiles & Amphibians. Hiraeth Press, San Franscisco, CA. pp. 109-114.
  Middendorf, G. and C. Nilon. 2007. Linking Ecology and Environmental Justice. Ecological Bulletin 88(2):160-165.
  Middendorf, G. and J.P. McCormick. 2006. Roots of environmental justice. Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. John Callewaert and Richard Gragg. (Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment). [Published October 23, 2006; Retrieved November 06, 2006]. < Roots_of_environmental_justice>
  Middendorf, G., J. Frankel, and D. Ruby. 2005. Variation in populations of Yarrow’s spiny lizard, Sceloporus jarrovii, in the northern Madrean Archipelago region. In Gottfried, G., BS Gebow, LG Eskew and CB Edminster (compilers). 2005. Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago II: Connecting Mountain Islands and Desert Seas. RockyMountain Research Station, Tucson, AZ. Pps. 100-105.
  Hodder, J., G. Middendorf, and D. Ebert-May. 2005. Problem solving: a foundation for modeling. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9(3):501-502.
  Middendorf, G. and C. Nilon. 2005. An environmental crosstown walk to assess environmental changes along an urban socioeconomic gradient. Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology. Vol. 3: Experiment #3 [online]. crosstown/abstract.html
  Sherbrooke, W.C., E. Beltran Sanchez, F. Mendoza Quijano, B. Baur, and G.A. Middendorf. 2004. Is there an antipredator blood-squirting defense in the bull horned lizard, Phrynosoma taurus? Herpetological Review 35 (4):345-348.
  Dahlin, B. and G. Middendorf. 2004. Book review: The Lowland Maya Area: Three Millennia at the Human–Wildland Interface. Gómez-Pompa, A., M.F. Allen, S.L. Fedick, and J.J. Jiménez-Osornio. . J. Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education Vol. 33. – online <>.
  Sherbrooke, W.C.and G.A. Middendorf. 2004. Responses of kit foxes, Vulpes macrotis, to antipredator blood-squirting and blood of horned lizards, Phrynosoma cornutum. Copeia 2004(3): 652-658.
  Middendorf, G. and B. Grant. 2003. The challenge of environmental justice. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(3): 154-55.
  Duncan, W.W., F.R. Gehlbach, and G.A. Middendorf III. 2003. Nocturnal activity by diurnal lizards (Sceloporus jarrovi, S. virgatus) eaten by small owls (Glaucidium gnoma, Otus trichopsis). Southwestern Naturalist 48(2): 218-222.
  Touré, T. and G. Middendorf. 2002. Colonization of herpetofauna to a created wetland. Bull. Maryland Herpetological Society 38(4):99-117.
  Frankel, J.S. and G.A. Middendorf. 2001. Genetic variation of esterase isozymes in populations of Yarrow’s spiny lizard, Sceloporus jarrovi (Phrynosomatidae). Isozyme Bulletin 34:37. Sherbrooke, W.C. and G.A. Middendorf III. 2001. Blood-squirting variability in horned lizards (Phrynosoma). Copeia 2001(4): 1114-1122.
  Middendorf, G., W.C. Sherbrooke, and E.J. Braun. 2001. Comparison of blood squirted from the circumorbital sinus and systemic blood in a horned lizard, Phrynosoma cornutum. Southwestern Naturalist 46(3):389-392.
  Schwartzman, D. and G. Middendorf. 2000. Biospheric cooling and the emergence of intelligence. In A New Era in Bioastronomy. ASP Conference Series 213: 425-429.
  Middendorf, G. and R. Reynolds. 2000. Herpetofauna of the Beni Biological Station Biosphere Reserve: additional information and current knowledge, pp. 151-169. In O. Herrera- MacBryde, F. Dallmeier, B. MacBryde, J.A. Comiskey and C. Miranda, Eds., Biodiversidad, Conservación y Manejo en la Región de la Reserva de la Biosfera Estación Biológica del Beni, Bolivia / Biodiversity, Conservation and Management in the Region. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC 423 pp.
  Frankel, J.S., G.A. Middendorf, and D. Ruby. 1996. Genetic variation in populations of Yarrow's spiny lizard. Isozyme Bulletin 29:28.
  Goldberg, S.R., H.J. Holshuh, G.A. Middendorf III and N. Zucker. 1994. Natural cactus spine injury in the tree lizard, Urosaurus ornatus (Phrynosomatidae). Southwestern Natur. 39(3): 278-282.
  Middendorf, G.A. and J.S. Frankel. 1992. Genetic variation and historical distribution patterns in populations of Yarrow's spiny lizard, Sceloporus jarrovi. A.M. Barton and S.A. Sloan (Eds.). Chiricahua Mountains Research Symposium Proceedings, Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, Tucson, AZ. pp. 70-73.
  Middendorf, G.A. and W.C. Sherbrooke. 1992. Canid elicitation of blood-squirting in a horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum). Copeia 1992(2):519-527.
  Middendorf, G.A. and M.E. Poston. 1992. The Natural History Sciences: addressing the issue of minority representation.   Plant Science Bulletin 38(1):6-7.
  Frankel, J.S. and G.A. Middendorf. 1991. An electrophoretic study of genetic variation in populations of Yarrow's spiny lizard Sceloporus jarrovi (Sauria, Iguanidae) - I. Esterase characterization and polymorphism. Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry 100B: 173-176.
  Middendorf, G.A. and C.A. Simon. 1988. Thermoregulation in the iguanid lizard Sceloporus jarrovi: the influences of age, time, and light condition on body temperature and thermoregulatory behaviors. Southwestern Naturalist 33(3):347-356.
  Poston, M.E. and G.A. Middendorf. 1988. Maturation characteristics of Rubus pennsylvanicus fruit: are black and red the same? Oecologia 77:69-72.
  Weldon, P.J., F.M. Divita and G.A. Middendorf. 1987. Responses to snake odors by laboratory mice. Behavioral Processes 14: 137-146.
  Simon, C.A. and G.A. Middendorf. 1985. Changes in resource usage of Sceloporus jarrovi (Sauria: Iguanidae) during periods of high and low food abundance. Southwestern Natur. 30: 83-88.
  Middendorf, G.A. 1984. The influence of population density on patterns of resource utilization by Sceloporus jarrovi. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 74: 51-60.
  Simon, C.A. and G.A. Middendorf. 1980. Spacing in juvenile lizards (Sceloporus jarrovi). Copeia 1980: 141-146.
  Middendorf, G.A. 1979. An inexpensive method of construction for enclosures and fences. Herp Review 10: 7.
  Hulse, A.C. and G.A. Middendorf. 1979. Range extension of the desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizi. Southwestern Natur. 24: 545-546.
  Middendorf. G.A. 1979. On dominance hierarchies. Human Ethology Newsletter 20: 6-8. DeFazio, A., C.A. Simon, G.A. Middendorf and D. Romano. 1977. Iguanid substrate licking: a response to novel situations in Sceloporus jarrovi. Copeia 1977: 706-709.
  Simon, C.A. and G.A. Middendorf. 1976. Resource partitioning by an iguanid lizard: temporal and thermal aspects. Ecology 57: 1317-1320.